To make all education and training systems in Europe more transparent and comparable it is necessary to shift the focus on learning outcomes in setting up the national qualifications frameworks, the same method used by the European Qualifications Framework.
In this context, learning outcomes are defined as knowledge, skills, and competences. Knowledge is theoretical and/or factual, skills describe the ability to apply knowledge in practice and competences describe responsibility and autonomy.
Learning outcomes do not depend on the length of study, the setting where learning takes place and the form of learning. The basis and objective is to further develop the curricula of all programmes that award qualifications to give them a learning outcome focus.
„Learning outcomes are defined as statements about what a learner knows, understands, and is able to do on completion of a learning process. They are defined in terms of knowledge, skills, and competences.“
(Recommendation of the European Parliament and Council on the EQF, 2008)
Below is a list of documents about using learning outcomes in the context of the European and/or National Qualifications Framework:
NCP brochure on learning outcomes (pdf, only available in German)
Using Learning Outcomes/European Qualification Framework (pdf)
Cedefop 2022: Defining, writing and applying learning outcomes._A European Handbook 2nd Edition
Learning outcome focus in adult education:
Terminology, concepts, and issues (pdf, only available in German)
Guide to learning outcome-focused curriculum development (pdf, only available in German)